AC   CVCL_2219
SY   U-373MG; U373 MG; U-373-MG; U-373 MG; U373-MG; U373MG; U373; 373 MG; 373MG
DR   BTO; BTO:0002126
DR   CLO; CLO_0009460
DR   CLO; CLO_0009461
DR   EFO; EFO_0001255
DR   CLDB; cl4587
DR   CLDB; cl4589
DR   CLDB; cl4964
DR   cancercelllines; CVCL_2219
DR   CGH-DB; 320-1
DR   ChEMBL-Cells; CHEMBL3307474
DR   ChEMBL-Cells; CHEMBL3886101
DR   ChEMBL-Targets; CHEMBL615024
DR   Cosmic; 687589
DR   Cosmic; 849849
DR   Cosmic; 850825
DR   Cosmic; 920819
DR   Cosmic; 970093
DR   Cosmic; 1066236
DR   Cosmic; 1171226
DR   Cosmic; 1175824
DR   Cosmic; 1217674
DR   Cosmic; 1294952
DR   Cosmic; 1610742
DR   Cosmic; 2367504
DR   Cosmic; 2491105
DR   Cosmic; 2701087
DR   ECACC; 89081403
DR   GEO; GSM101681
DR   GEO; GSM101682
DR   GEO; GSM827314
DR   GEO; GSM1638667
DR   IARC_TP53; 2576
DR   KCLB; 30017
DR   Lonza; 334
DR   Lonza; 1006
DR   NCBI_Iran; C455
DR   PRIDE; PXD000430
DR   PRIDE; PXD031569
DR   Progenetix; CVCL_2219
DR   PubChem_Cell_line; CVCL_2219
DR   TOKU-E; 3660
DR   Wikidata; Q54973575
RX   PubMed=450131;
RX   PubMed=833871;
RX   PubMed=2253244;
RX   PubMed=3518877;
RX   PubMed=6220172;
RX   PubMed=6260907;
RX   PubMed=6582512;
RX   PubMed=8858520;
RX   PubMed=9220028;
RX   PubMed=9230885;
RX   PubMed=9842975;
RX   PubMed=10074188;
RX   PubMed=10402232;
RX   PubMed=10416987;
RX   PubMed=11351043;
RX   PubMed=11414198;
RX   PubMed=14614447;
RX   PubMed=14655754;
RX   PubMed=16232199;
RX   PubMed=16697959;
RX   PubMed=17595512;
RX   PubMed=20215515;
RX   PubMed=20593219;
RX   PubMed=21406405;
RX   PubMed=22282976;
RX   PubMed=22570425;
RX   PubMed=26496030;
CC   Problematic cell line: Misidentified/contaminated. Shown to be a U-251MG derivative. This cell line is not the original astrocytoma cell line established in 1973 at the University of Uppsala. See U-373MG Uppsala (Cellosaurus=CVCL_2818) for the original U-373MG cell line.
CC   Registration: International Cell Line Authentication Committee, Register of Misidentified Cell Lines; ICLAC-00295.
CC   Population: Caucasian.
CC   Doubling time: 40 hours (PubMed=9842975).
CC   Sequence variation: Mutation; HGNC; 9588; PTEN; Simple; p.Glu242Valfs*15 (c.723_724dupTG); ClinVar=VCV000536553; Zygosity=Unspecified (from parent cell line).
CC   Sequence variation: Mutation; HGNC; 11730; TERT; Simple; c.1-124C>T (c.228C>T) (C228T); Zygosity=Unspecified; Note=In promoter (from parent cell line).
CC   Sequence variation: Mutation; HGNC; 11998; TP53; Simple; p.Arg273His (c.818G>A); ClinVar=VCV000012366; Zygosity=Homozygous (PubMed=10416987; PubMed=14614447).
CC   Omics: Array-based CGH.
CC   Omics: Deep exome analysis.
CC   Omics: SNP array analysis.
CC   Omics: Transcriptome analysis by microarray.
CC   Omics: Transcriptome analysis by RNAseq.
CC   Discontinued: ATCC; HTB-17; true.
CC   Discontinued: ECACC; 89081403; true.
CC   Discontinued: JCRB; NIHS0295; true.
CC   Derived from site: In situ; Brain, parietal lobe; UBERON=UBERON_0001872.
ST   Source(s): ATCC; JCRB; KCLB; PubMed=22570425
ST   Amelogenin: X,Y
ST   CSF1PO: 11,12
ST   D13S317: 10,11
ST   D16S539: 12
ST   D18S51: 13
ST   D21S11: 29,30
ST   D3S1358: 16,17
ST   D5S818: 11,12
ST   D7S820: 10,12
ST   D8S1179: 13,15
ST   FGA: 21,25
ST   Penta D: 10,12
ST   Penta E: 7,10
ST   TH01: 9.3 (ATCC; KCLB; PubMed=22570425)
ST   TH01: 9.3,11 (JCRB)
ST   TPOX: 8
ST   vWA: 16,18
DI   NCIt; C60781; Astrocytoma
DI   ORDO; Orphanet_94; Astrocytoma
OX   NCBI_TaxID=9606; ! Homo sapiens (Human)
HI   CVCL_0021 ! U-251MG
SX   Male
AG   75Y
CA   Cancer cell line
DT   Created: 04-04-12; Last updated: 05-10-23; Version: 36
RX   PubMed=450131; DOI=10.1038/279797a0;
RA   Day R.S. III, Ziolkowski C.H.J.;
RT   "Human brain tumour cell strains with deficient host-cell reactivation
RT   of N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine-damaged adenovirus 5.";
RL   Nature 279:797-799(1979).
RX   PubMed=833871; DOI=10.1093/jnci/58.2.209;
RA   Fogh J., Wright W.C., Loveless J.D.;
RT   "Absence of HeLa cell contamination in 169 cell lines derived from
RT   human tumors.";
RL   J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 58:209-214(1977).
RX   PubMed=2253244;
RA   Bigner S.H., Humphrey P.A., Wong A.J., Vogelstein B., Mark J.,
RA   Friedman H.S., Bigner D.D.;
RT   "Characterization of the epidermal growth factor receptor in human
RT   glioma cell lines and xenografts.";
RL   Cancer Res. 50:8017-8022(1990).
RX   PubMed=3518877; DOI=10.3109/07357908609038260;
RA   Fogh J.;
RT   "Human tumor lines for cancer research.";
RL   Cancer Invest. 4:157-184(1986).
RX   PubMed=6220172;
RA   Dracopoli N.C., Fogh J.;
RT   "Polymorphic enzyme analysis of cultured human tumor cell lines.";
RL   J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 70:469-476(1983).
RX   PubMed=6260907; DOI=10.1097/00005072-198105000-00001;
RA   Bigner D.D., Bigner S.H., Ponten J., Westermark B., Mahaley M.S. Jr.,
RA   Ruoslahti E., Herschman H., Eng L.F., Wikstrand C.J.;
RT   "Heterogeneity of genotypic and phenotypic characteristics of fifteen
RT   permanent cell lines derived from human gliomas.";
RL   J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol. 40:201-229(1981).
RX   PubMed=6582512; DOI=10.1073/pnas.81.2.568;
RA   Mattes M.J., Cordon-Cardo C., Lewis J.L. Jr., Old L.J., Lloyd K.O.;
RT   "Cell surface antigens of human ovarian and endometrial carcinoma
RT   defined by mouse monoclonal antibodies.";
RL   Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 81:568-572(1984).
RX   PubMed=8858520; DOI=10.1007/BF00182138;
RA   Liang B.C.;
RT   "Effects of hypoxia on drug resistance phenotype and genotype in human
RT   glioma cell lines.";
RL   J. Neurooncol. 29:149-155(1996).
RX   PubMed=9220028; DOI=10.1016/S0303-7207(97)00080-4;
RA   Sharif T.R., Luo W., Sharif M.;
RT   "Functional expression of bombesin receptor in most adult and
RT   pediatric human glioblastoma cell lines; role in mitogenesis and in
RT   stimulating the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway.";
RL   Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. 130:119-130(1997).
RX   PubMed=9230885; DOI=10.1093/jnci/89.14.1036;
RA   Gomez-Manzano C., Fueyo J., Kyritsis A.P., McDonnell T.J., Steck P.A.,
RA   Levin V.A., Yung W.-K.A.;
RT   "Characterization of p53 and p21 functional interactions in glioma
RT   cells en route to apoptosis.";
RL   J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 89:1036-1044(1997).
RX   PubMed=9842975; DOI=10.1002/(SICI)1097-0215(19981218)79:6<640::AID-IJC15>3.0.CO;2-z;
RA   Weller M., Rieger J., Grimmel C., Van Meir E.G., De Tribolet N.,
RA   Krajewski S., Reed J.C., von Deimling A., Dichgans J.;
RT   "Predicting chemoresistance in human malignant glioma cells: the role
RT   of molecular genetic analyses.";
RL   Int. J. Cancer 79:640-644(1998).
RX   PubMed=10074188; DOI=10.1128/JVI.73.4.3338-3350.1999;
RA   Arbour N., Cote G., Lachance C., Tardieu M., Cashman N.R.,
RA   Talbot P.J.;
RT   "Acute and persistent infection of human neural cell lines by human
RT   coronavirus OC43.";
RL   J. Virol. 73:3338-3350(1999).
RX   PubMed=10402232; DOI=10.3892/ijo.15.2.237;
RA   Sharif T.R., Sharif M.;
RT   "Overexpression of protein kinase C epsilon in astroglial brain tumor
RT   derived cell lines and primary tumor samples.";
RL   Int. J. Oncol. 15:237-243(1999).
RX   PubMed=10416987; DOI=10.1111/j.1750-3639.1999.tb00536.x;
RA   Ishii N., Maier D., Merlo A., Tada M., Sawamura Y., Diserens A.-C.,
RA   Van Meir E.G.;
RT   "Frequent co-alterations of TP53, p16/CDKN2A, p14ARF, PTEN tumor
RT   suppressor genes in human glioma cell lines.";
RL   Brain Pathol. 9:469-479(1999).
RX   PubMed=11351043; DOI=10.1038/labinvest.3780280;
RA   Hui A.B.-Y., Lo K.-W., Yin X.-L., Poon W.-S., Ng H.-K.;
RT   "Detection of multiple gene amplifications in glioblastoma multiforme
RT   using array-based comparative genomic hybridization.";
RL   Lab. Invest. 81:717-723(2001).
RX   PubMed=11414198; DOI=10.1007/s004320000207;
RA   Lahm H., Andre S., Hoeflich A., Fischer J.R., Sordat B., Kaltner H.,
RA   Wolf E., Gabius H.-J.;
RT   "Comprehensive galectin fingerprinting in a panel of 61 human tumor
RT   cell lines by RT-PCR and its implications for diagnostic and
RT   therapeutic procedures.";
RL   J. Cancer Res. Clin. Oncol. 127:375-386(2001).
RX   PubMed=14614447; DOI=10.1038/sj.onc.1207198;
RA   Wischhusen J., Naumann U., Ohgaki H., Rastinejad F., Weller M.;
RT   "CP-31398, a novel p53-stabilizing agent, induces p53-dependent and
RT   p53-independent glioma cell death.";
RL   Oncogene 22:8233-8245(2003).
RX   PubMed=14655754; DOI=10.1111/j.1750-3639.2003.tb00479.x;
RA   Bahr O., Rieger J., Duffner F., Meyermann R., Weller M., Wick W.;
RT   "P-glycoprotein and multidrug resistance-associated protein mediate
RT   specific patterns of multidrug resistance in malignant glioma cell
RT   lines, but not in primary glioma cells.";
RL   Brain Pathol. 13:482-494(2003).
RX   PubMed=16232199; DOI=10.1111/j.1349-7006.2005.00099.x;
RA   Saigusa K., Hashimoto N., Tsuda H., Yokoi S., Maruno M., Yoshimine T.,
RA   Aoyagi M., Ohno K., Imoto I., Inazawa J.;
RT   "Overexpressed Skp2 within 5p amplification detected by array-based
RT   comparative genomic hybridization is associated with poor prognosis of
RT   glioblastomas.";
RL   Cancer Sci. 96:676-683(2005).
RX   PubMed=16697959; DOI=10.1016/j.ccr.2006.03.030;
RA   Lee J., Kotliarova S., Kotliarov Y., Li A.-G., Su Q., Donin N.M.,
RA   Pastorino S., Purow B.W., Christopher N., Zhang W., Park J.K.,
RA   Fine H.A.;
RT   "Tumor stem cells derived from glioblastomas cultured in bFGF and EGF
RT   more closely mirror the phenotype and genotype of primary tumors than
RT   do serum-cultured cell lines.";
RL   Cancer Cell 9:391-403(2006).
RX   PubMed=17595512; DOI=10.1159/000104150;
RA   Rieger J., Frank B., Weller M., Wick W.;
RT   "Mechanisms of resistance of human glioma cells to Apo2
RT   ligand/TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand.";
RL   Cell. Physiol. Biochem. 20:23-34(2007).
RX   PubMed=20215515; DOI=10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-09-3458;
RA   Rothenberg S.M., Mohapatra G., Rivera M.N., Winokur D., Greninger P.,
RA   Nitta M., Sadow P.M., Sooriyakumar G., Brannigan B.W., Ulman M.J.,
RA   Perera R.M., Wang R., Tam A., Ma X.-J., Erlander M., Sgroi D.C.,
RA   Rocco J.W., Lingen M.W., Cohen E.E.W., Louis D.N., Settleman J.,
RA   Haber D.A.;
RT   "A genome-wide screen for microdeletions reveals disruption of
RT   polarity complex genes in diverse human cancers.";
RL   Cancer Res. 70:2158-2164(2010).
RX   PubMed=20593219; DOI=10.1007/s11060-010-0283-9;
RA   Blough M.D., Beauchamp D.C., Westgate M.R., Kelly J.J.P.,
RA   Cairncross J.G.;
RT   "Effect of aberrant p53 function on temozolomide sensitivity of glioma
RT   cell lines and brain tumor initiating cells from glioblastoma.";
RL   J. Neurooncol. 102:1-7(2011).
RX   PubMed=21406405; DOI=10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-10-3112;
RA   Grzmil M., Morin P. Jr., Lino M.M., Merlo A., Frank S., Wang Y.-H.,
RA   Moncayo G., Hemmings B.A.;
RT   "MAP kinase-interacting kinase 1 regulates SMAD2-dependent TGF-beta
RT   signaling pathway in human glioblastoma.";
RL   Cancer Res. 71:2392-2402(2011).
RX   PubMed=22282976; DOI=10.1093/carcin/1.1.21;
RA   Day R.S. III, Ziolkowski C.H.J., Scudiero D.A., Meyer S.A.,
RA   Mattern M.R.;
RT   "Human tumor cell strains defective in the repair of alkylation
RT   damage.";
RL   Carcinogenesis 1:21-32(1980).
RX   PubMed=22570425; DOI=10.1093/neuonc/nos072;
RA   Bady P., Diserens A.-C., Castella V., Kalt S., Heinimann K.,
RA   Hamou M.-F., Delorenzi M., Hegi M.E.;
RT   "DNA fingerprinting of glioma cell lines and considerations on
RT   similarity measurements.";
RL   Neuro-oncol. 14:701-711(2012).
RX   PubMed=26496030; DOI=10.18632/oncotarget.6171;
RA   Patil V., Pal J., Somasundaram K.;
RT   "Elucidating the cancer-specific genetic alteration spectrum of
RT   glioblastoma derived cell lines from whole exome and RNA sequencing.";
RL   Oncotarget 6:43452-43471(2015).