ID   U-937
AC   CVCL_0007
SY   U937; U 937
DR   BTO; BTO:0001412
DR   CLO; CLO_0009450
DR   CLO; CLO_0009465
DR   EFO; EFO_0001257
DR   MCCL; MCC:0000470
DR   CLDB; cl4597
DR   CLDB; cl4599
DR   CLDB; cl4600
DR   CLDB; cl4601
DR   CLDB; cl4602
DR   CLDB; cl4603
DR   CLDB; cl4604
DR   CLDB; cl4605
DR   CLDB; cl4606
DR   CLDB; cl4608
DR   AddexBio; C0003005/72
DR   ArrayExpress; E-MTAB-2706
DR   ArrayExpress; E-MTAB-2770
DR   ArrayExpress; E-MTAB-7721
DR   ArrayExpress; E-MTAB-7722
DR   ATCC; CRL-1593
DR   ATCC; CRL-1593.2
DR   BCRC; 60435
DR   BCRJ; 0242
DR   BioGRID_ORCS_Cell_line; 154
DR   BioSample; SAMN03472409
DR   BioSample; SAMN03473173
DR   BioSample; SAMN03473567
DR   BioSample; SAMN10988180
DR   cancercelllines; CVCL_0007
DR   CCRID; 1101HUM-PUMC000059
DR   CCRID; 3101HUMTCHu159
DR   CCRID; 4201HUM-CCTCC00080
DR   Cell_Model_Passport; SIDM01195
DR   ChEMBL-Cells; CHEMBL3308006
DR   ChEMBL-Targets; CHEMBL612794
DR   CLS; 300368
DR   Cosmic; 787483
DR   Cosmic; 798666
DR   Cosmic; 821044
DR   Cosmic; 850382
DR   Cosmic; 852000
DR   Cosmic; 919123
DR   Cosmic; 922162
DR   Cosmic; 932770
DR   Cosmic; 947364
DR   Cosmic; 975307
DR   Cosmic; 991558
DR   Cosmic; 994178
DR   Cosmic; 999781
DR   Cosmic; 1012127
DR   Cosmic; 1019837
DR   Cosmic; 1067446
DR   Cosmic; 1070690
DR   Cosmic; 1078726
DR   Cosmic; 1082516
DR   Cosmic; 1086353
DR   Cosmic; 1089523
DR   Cosmic; 1107178
DR   Cosmic; 1127260
DR   Cosmic; 1150904
DR   Cosmic; 1176581
DR   Cosmic; 1181605
DR   Cosmic; 1191692
DR   Cosmic; 1465967
DR   Cosmic; 1523828
DR   Cosmic; 1524826
DR   Cosmic; 1582388
DR   Cosmic; 1601066
DR   Cosmic; 1604865
DR   Cosmic; 1995661
DR   Cosmic; 2301570
DR   Cosmic; 2361376
DR   Cosmic; 2750876
DR   DepMap; ACH-000406
DR   DSMZCellDive; ACC-5
DR   ECACC; 85011440
DR   EGA; EGAS00001000610
DR   EGA; EGAS00001002554
DR   GEO; GSE66854
DR   GEO; GSM2020
DR   GEO; GSM236809
DR   GEO; GSM236845
DR   GEO; GSM482491
DR   GEO; GSM743413
DR   GEO; GSM887724
DR   GEO; GSM888818
DR   GEO; GSM1028244
DR   GEO; GSM1028245
DR   GEO; GSM1374975
DR   GEO; GSM1670560
DR   IARC_TP53; 2199
DR   ICLC; HTL94002
DR   IPD-IMGT/HLA; 11507
DR   JCRB; IFO50038
DR   KCB; KCB 200676YJ
DR   KCLB; 21593.1
DR   LiGeA; CCLE_826
DR   LINCS_HMS; 50869
DR   Lonza; 135
DR   MeSH; D020298
DR   NCBI_Iran; C130
DR   PharmacoDB; U937_1624_2019
DR   PRIDE; PXD001521
DR   PRIDE; PXD001522
DR   PRIDE; PXD001523
DR   Progenetix; CVCL_0007
DR   PubChem_Cell_line; CVCL_0007
DR   RCB; RCB1978
DR   TKG; TKG 0279
DR   TOKU-E; 3382
DR   Ubigene; YC-C021
DR   Wikidata; Q7863610
RX   DOI=10.1007/978-1-4757-1647-4_13;
RX   DOI=10.1007/978-94-011-3550-4_20;
RX   DOI=10.1016/j.actaastro.2013.06.007;
RX   DOI=10.1159/000415060;
RX   PubMed=178611;
RX   PubMed=1083890;
RX   PubMed=1571549;
RX   PubMed=1913629;
RX   PubMed=2140233;
RX   PubMed=2985879;
RX   PubMed=3159941;
RX   PubMed=3874327;
RX   PubMed=6091813;
RX   PubMed=6582512;
RX   PubMed=7759961;
RX   PubMed=8300570;
RX   PubMed=8547074;
RX   PubMed=8558913;
RX   PubMed=8558920;
RX   PubMed=8643484;
RX   PubMed=9371509;
RX   PubMed=9510473;
RX   PubMed=9685479;
RX   PubMed=9738977;
RX   PubMed=10352142;
RX   PubMed=10676951;
RX   PubMed=10739008;
RX   PubMed=10966170;
RX   PubMed=11226526;
RX   PubMed=11416159;
RX   PubMed=11701946;
RX   PubMed=12393283;
RX   PubMed=15637111;
RX   PubMed=15843827;
RX   PubMed=16311011;
RX   PubMed=16337770;
RX   PubMed=16408098;
RX   PubMed=20801507;
RX   PubMed=21269460;
RX   PubMed=22460905;
RX   PubMed=25485619;
RX   PubMed=25877200;
RX   PubMed=26589293;
RX   PubMed=29787063;
RX   PubMed=30285677;
RX   PubMed=30629668;
RX   PubMed=30894373;
RX   PubMed=31068700;
RX   PubMed=31160637;
RX   PubMed=31978347;
RX   PubMed=33317567;
RX   PubMed=34707142;
CC   Group: Space-flown cell line (cellonaut).
CC   Problematic cell line: Partially contaminated. Some ATCC stocks were cross-contaminated by K-562 initially (PubMed=7759961). The problem was corrected and subsequent stocks have been confirmed to carry only U-937.
CC   Part of: Cancer Dependency Map project (DepMap) (includes Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia - CCLE).
CC   Part of: LL-100 blood cancer cell line panel.
CC   Registration: International Cell Line Authentication Committee, Register of Misidentified Cell Lines; ICLAC-00168.
CC   Population: Caucasian.
CC   Characteristics: Can be induced to differentiate into macrophages by several factors such as phorbol ester (PMA) and 12-O-tetradecanoyl-13-phorbol acetate (TPA).
CC   Doubling time: 95-100 hours (PubMed=178611); ~30-40 hours (DSMZ=ACC-5).
CC   HLA typing: DRB1*16:01 (IPD-IMGT/HLA=11507).
CC   HLA typing: A*03:01,03:01; B*18:01,51:01; C*01:02,07:01; DRB1*16:01,16:01 (PubMed=26589293).
CC   Karyotypic information: Has lost chromosome Y.
CC   Microsatellite instability: Stable (MSS) (PubMed=10739008; PubMed=11226526).
CC   Sequence variation: Gene fusion; HGNC; 16063; MLLT10 + HGNC; 15514; PICALM; Name(s)=PICALM-MLLT10, CALM-AF10 (PubMed=8643484; PubMed=25485619).
CC   Sequence variation: Mutation; HGNC; 9588; PTEN; Simple; p.Gly129fs*51 (c.387_388insCGCC); Zygosity=Hemizygous (PubMed=10966170; DepMap).
CC   Sequence variation: Mutation; HGNC; 9644; PTPN11; Simple; p.Gly60Arg (c.178G>C); ClinVar=VCV000372590; Zygosity=Heterozygous (DepMap).
CC   Sequence variation: Mutation; HGNC; 11998; TP53; Simple; c.559+1G>A (p.Val173Trpfs*59); ClinVar=VCV000428908; Zygosity=Homozygous; Note=Splice donor mutation (PubMed=1571549; DepMap).
CC   Sequence variation: Mutation; HGNC; 12796; WT1; Simple; p.Arg301Ter (c.901C>T) (p.Arg352Ter, c.1054C>T) (p.Arg374Ter, c.1120C>T); ClinVar=VCV000449416; Zygosity=Heterozygous (DepMap).
CC   Omics: Deep antibody staining analysis.
CC   Omics: Deep exome analysis.
CC   Omics: Deep proteome analysis.
CC   Omics: Deep quantitative proteome analysis.
CC   Omics: DNA methylation analysis.
CC   Omics: Proteome analysis by 2D-DE/MS.
CC   Omics: SNP array analysis.
CC   Omics: Transcriptome analysis by microarray.
CC   Omics: Transcriptome analysis by RNAseq.
CC   Genome ancestry: African=0%; Native American=0%; East Asian, North=2.39%; East Asian, South=0%; South Asian=0%; European, North=71.54%; European, South=26.06% (PubMed=30894373).
CC   Anecdotal: Have been flown in space on shuttle flight STS-76 and on Shenzhou-8 to study growth and cytoskeletal changes in microgravity (PubMed=10352142; DOI=10.1016/j.actaastro.2013.06.007).
CC   Discontinued: ATCC; CRL-1593; true.
CC   Discontinued: RCB; RCB1978; true.
CC   Discontinued: TKG; TKG 0279; probable.
CC   Derived from site: In situ; Pleural effusion; UBERON=UBERON_0000175.
ST   Source(s): AddexBio; ATCC; CCRID; CLS; COG; DSMZ; ECACC; Genomics_Center_BCF_Technion; JCRB; KCLB; PubMed=11416159; PubMed=15637111; PubMed=25877200; PubMed=34707142; RCB
ST   Amelogenin: X
ST   CSF1PO: 10,12 (DSMZ; PubMed=15637111)
ST   CSF1PO: 12 (AddexBio; ATCC; CCRID; CLS; COG; ECACC; Genomics_Center_BCF_Technion; JCRB; KCLB; PubMed=25877200; PubMed=34707142; RCB)
ST   D10S1248: 14
ST   D12S391: 17,18
ST   D13S317: 10,12
ST   D16S539: 12
ST   D18S51: 13,14
ST   D19S433: 14,16
ST   D1S1656: 17.3
ST   D21S11: 27 (DSMZ; PubMed=15637111)
ST   D21S11: 27,29 (CCRID; CLS; COG; Genomics_Center_BCF_Technion; PubMed=25877200; PubMed=34707142)
ST   D22S1045: 17
ST   D2S1338: 17 (DSMZ)
ST   D2S1338: 17,20 (CCRID; CLS; COG; Genomics_Center_BCF_Technion; PubMed=34707142)
ST   D2S441: 10
ST   D3S1358: 16 (CCRID; CLS; COG; Genomics_Center_BCF_Technion; PubMed=25877200; PubMed=34707142)
ST   D3S1358: 16,17 (DSMZ)
ST   D5S818: 10,12 (PubMed=15637111)
ST   D5S818: 10,12,13 (DSMZ)
ST   D5S818: 12 (AddexBio; ATCC; CCRID; CLS; COG; ECACC; Genomics_Center_BCF_Technion; JCRB; KCLB; PubMed=25877200; PubMed=34707142; RCB)
ST   D7S820: 9,11
ST   D8S1179: 12,13
ST   FGA: 22,25
ST   Penta D: 12,13 (CLS; COG; Genomics_Center_BCF_Technion; PubMed=25877200)
ST   Penta D: 13 (DSMZ; PubMed=15637111)
ST   Penta E: 13
ST   TH01: 6,9.3 (AddexBio; ATCC; CCRID; CLS; COG; DSMZ; ECACC; Genomics_Center_BCF_Technion; JCRB_IFO50038; PubMed=11416159; PubMed=15637111; PubMed=25877200; PubMed=34707142; RCB)
ST   TH01: 6,10 (JCRB_JCRB9021)
ST   TH01: 9.3 (KCLB)
ST   TPOX: 8,11
ST   vWA: 14,15 (AddexBio; CCRID; CLS; COG; DSMZ; ECACC; Genomics_Center_BCF_Technion; JCRB; PubMed=11416159; PubMed=15637111; PubMed=25877200; RCB)
ST   vWA: 15 (ATCC; KCLB; PubMed=34707142)
DI   NCIt; C8263; Adult acute monocytic leukemia
DI   ORDO; Orphanet_514; Acute monoblastic/monocytic leukemia
OX   NCBI_TaxID=9606; ! Homo sapiens (Human)
SX   Male
AG   37Y
CA   Cancer cell line
DT   Created: 04-04-12; Last updated: 30-01-24; Version: 45
RX   DOI=10.1007/978-1-4757-1647-4_13;
RA   Biedler J.L.;
RT   "Chromosome abnormalities in human tumor cells in culture.";
RL   (In) Human tumor cells in vitro; Fogh J. (eds.); pp.359-394; Springer; New York (1975).
RX   DOI=10.1007/978-94-011-3550-4_20;
RA   Shinohara K., Kong Z.-L., Murakami H.;
RT   "Characterization of a human derived macrophage-like cell line, U-M.";
RL   (In) Animal cell culture and production of biologicals; Sasaki R., Ikura K. (eds.); pp.181-186; Springer; Dordrecht (1991).
RX   DOI=10.1016/j.actaastro.2013.06.007;
RA   Paulsen K., Tauber S., Golz N., Simmet D.M., Engeli S., Birlem M.,
RA   Dumrese C., Karer A., Hunziker S., Biskup J., Konopasek S., Suh D.,
RA   Breuer-Hurlimann E., Signer C., Wang A., Sang C., Grote K.-H.,
RA   Zhuang F.-Y., Ullrich O.;
RT   "Severe disruption of the cytoskeleton and immunologically relevant
RT   surface molecules in a human macrophageal cell line in
RT   microgravity -- results of an in vitro experiment on board of the
RT   Shenzhou-8 space mission.";
RL   Acta Astronaut. 94:277-292(2013).
RX   DOI=10.1159/000415060;
RA   Morikawa S., Harada T., Katoh T.;
RT   "Heterogeneity of cellular origins in human malignant lymphoma cell
RT   line derived from histo-monocytic lineage cells.";
RL   (In) Cellular, molecular, genetic approaches to immunodiagnosis and immunotherapy. 8th International conference on labeled antibodies, Tokyo, November 1985; Kano K., Mori S., Sugisaki T., Torisu M. (eds.); pp.373-380; Karger; Basel (1988).
RX   PubMed=178611; DOI=10.1002/ijc.2910170504;
RA   Sundstrom C., Nilsson K.;
RT   "Establishment and characterization of a human histiocytic lymphoma
RT   cell line (U-937).";
RL   Int. J. Cancer 17:565-577(1976).
RX   PubMed=1083890; DOI=10.1084/jem.143.6.1528;
RA   Ralph P., Moore M.A.S., Nilsson K.;
RT   "Lysozyme synthesis by established human and murine histiocytic
RT   lymphoma cell lines.";
RL   J. Exp. Med. 143:1528-1533(1976).
RX   PubMed=1571549; DOI=10.1182/blood.V79.9.2378.2378;
RA   Sugimoto K., Toyoshima H., Sakai R., Miyagawa K., Hagiwara K.,
RA   Ishikawa F., Takaku F., Yazaki Y., Hirai H.;
RT   "Frequent mutations in the p53 gene in human myeloid leukemia cell
RT   lines.";
RL   Blood 79:2378-2383(1992).
RX   PubMed=1913629; DOI=10.1016/0304-3835(91)90051-I;
RA   Chang K.S.-S., Liu W.-T., Josephs S.F.;
RT   "Regulation of cellular trans-activating activities in two different
RT   promonocytic leukemia cell lines.";
RL   Cancer Lett. 60:75-83(1991).
RX   PubMed=2140233; DOI=10.1111/j.1440-1827.1990.tb01549.x;
RA   Nakano A., Harada T., Morikawa S., Kato Y.;
RT   "Expression of leukocyte common antigen (CD45) on various human
RT   leukemia/lymphoma cell lines.";
RL   Acta Pathol. Jpn. 40:107-115(1990).
RX   PubMed=2985879; DOI=10.1016/0145-2126(85)90084-0;
RA   Drexler H.G., Gaedicke G., Minowada J.;
RT   "Isoenzyme studies in human leukemia-lymphoma cell lines -- 1.
RT   carboxylic esterase.";
RL   Leuk. Res. 9:209-229(1985).
RX   PubMed=3159941; DOI=10.1016/0145-2126(85)90134-1;
RA   Drexler H.G., Gaedicke G., Minowada J.;
RT   "Isoenzyme studies in human leukemia-lymphoma cell lines -- III.
RT   Beta-hexosaminidase (E.C.";
RL   Leuk. Res. 9:549-559(1985).
RX   PubMed=3874327; DOI=10.1016/0145-2126(85)90133-x;
RA   Drexler H.G., Gaedicke G., Minowada J.;
RT   "Isoenzyme studies in human leukemia-lymphoma cells lines -- II. Acid
RT   phosphatase.";
RL   Leuk. Res. 9:537-548(1985).
RX   PubMed=6091813; DOI=10.1182/blood.V64.5.1059.1059;
RA   Palumbo A., Minowada J., Erikson J., Croce C.M., Rovera G.;
RT   "Lineage infidelity of a human myelogenous leukemia cell line.";
RL   Blood 64:1059-1063(1984).
RX   PubMed=6582512; DOI=10.1073/pnas.81.2.568;
RA   Mattes M.J., Cordon-Cardo C., Lewis J.L. Jr., Old L.J., Lloyd K.O.;
RT   "Cell surface antigens of human ovarian and endometrial carcinoma
RT   defined by mouse monoclonal antibodies.";
RL   Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 81:568-572(1984).
RX   PubMed=7759961; DOI=10.1002/jlb.57.5.804;
RA   Reid Y.A., McGuire L., O'Neill K., Macy M.L., Chen T.R., McClintock P.R.,
RA   Dorotinsky C.S., Hay R.;
RT   "Cell line cross-contamination of U-937.";
RL   J. Leukoc. Biol. 57:804-804(1995).
RX   PubMed=8300570; DOI=10.1016/S0021-9258(17)41964-8;
RA   Rubin E.H., Pantazis P., Bharti A., Toppmeyer D., Giovanella B.C.,
RA   Kufe D.W.;
RT   "Identification of a mutant human topoisomerase I with intact
RT   catalytic activity and resistance to 9-nitro-camptothecin.";
RL   J. Biol. Chem. 269:2433-2439(1994).
RX   PubMed=8547074; DOI=10.1111/j.1365-2141.1995.tb05302.x;
RA   Siebert R., Willers C.P., Schramm A., Fossa A., Dresen I.M.G.,
RA   Uppenkamp M., Nowrousian M.R., Seeber S., Opalka B.;
RT   "Homozygous loss of the MTS1/p16 and MTS2/p15 genes in lymphoma and
RT   lymphoblastic leukaemia cell lines.";
RL   Br. J. Haematol. 91:350-354(1995).
RX   PubMed=8558913;
RA   Morita S., Tsuchiya S., Fujie H., Itano M., Ohashi Y., Minegishi M.,
RA   Imaizumi M., Endo M., Takano N., Konno T.;
RT   "Cell surface c-kit receptors in human leukemia cell lines and
RT   pediatric leukemia: selective preservation of c-kit expression on
RT   megakaryoblastic cell lines during adaptation to in vitro culture.";
RL   Leukemia 10:102-105(1996).
RX   PubMed=8558920;
RA   Dirks W.G., Zaborski M., Jager K., Challier C., Shiota M.,
RA   Quentmeier H., Drexler H.G.;
RT   "The (2;5)(p23;q35) translocation in cell lines derived from malignant
RT   lymphomas: absence of t(2;5) in Hodgkin-analogous cell lines.";
RL   Leukemia 10:142-149(1996).
RX   PubMed=8643484; DOI=10.1073/pnas.93.10.4804;
RA   Dreyling M.H., Martinez-Climent J.A., Zheng M., Mao J., Rowley J.D.,
RA   Bohlander S.K.;
RT   "The t(10;11)(p13;q14) in the U937 cell line results in the fusion of
RT   the AF10 gene and CALM, encoding a new member of the AP-3 clathrin
RT   assembly protein family.";
RL   Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 93:4804-4809(1996).
RX   PubMed=9371509;
RA   Saleem A., Ibrahim N., Patel M., Li X.-G., Gupta E., Mendoza J.T.,
RA   Pantazis P., Rubin E.H.;
RT   "Mechanisms of resistance in a human cell line exposed to sequential
RT   topoisomerase poisoning.";
RL   Cancer Res. 57:5100-5106(1997).
RX   PubMed=9510473; DOI=10.1111/j.1349-7006.1998.tb00476.x;
RA   Hosoya N., Hangaishi A., Ogawa S., Miyagawa K., Mitani K., Yazaki Y.,
RA   Hirai H.;
RT   "Frameshift mutations of the hMSH6 gene in human leukemia cell
RT   lines.";
RL   Jpn. J. Cancer Res. 89:33-39(1998).
RX   PubMed=9685479; DOI=10.1093/nar/26.16.3651;
RA   Hultdin M., Gronlund E., Norrback K.-F., Eriksson-Lindstrom E., Just T.,
RA   Roos G.;
RT   "Telomere analysis by fluorescence in situ hybridization and flow
RT   cytometry.";
RL   Nucleic Acids Res. 26:3651-3656(1998).
RX   PubMed=9738977; DOI=10.1111/j.1349-7006.1998.tb03275.x;
RA   Takizawa J., Suzuki R., Kuroda H., Utsunomiya A., Kagami Y., Joh T.,
RA   Aizawa Y., Ueda R., Seto M.;
RT   "Expression of the TCL1 gene at 14q32 in B-cell malignancies but not
RT   in adult T-cell leukemia.";
RL   Jpn. J. Cancer Res. 89:712-718(1998).
RX   PubMed=10352142; DOI=10.1096/fasebj.13.9001.s23;
RA   Hatton J.P., Gaubert F., Lewis M.L., Darsel Y., Ohlmann P.,
RA   Cazenave J.-P., Schmitt D.;
RT   "The kinetics of translocation and cellular quantity of protein kinase
RT   C in human leukocytes are modified during spaceflight.";
RL   FASEB J. 13:S23-S33(1999).
RX   PubMed=10676951; DOI=10.1038/35000501;
RA   Alizadeh A.A., Eisen M.B., Davis R.E., Ma C., Lossos I.S.,
RA   Rosenwald A., Boldrick J.C., Sabet H., Tran T., Yu X., Powell J.I.,
RA   Yang L.-M., Marti G.E., Moore T., Hudson J. Jr., Lu L.-S., Lewis D.B.,
RA   Tibshirani R., Sherlock G., Chan W.C., Greiner T.C.,
RA   Weisenburger D.D., Armitage J.O., Warnke R.A., Levy R., Wilson W.,
RA   Grever M.R., Byrd J.C., Botstein D., Brown P.O., Staudt L.M.;
RT   "Distinct types of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma identified by gene
RT   expression profiling.";
RL   Nature 403:503-511(2000).
RX   PubMed=10739008; DOI=10.1016/S0145-2126(99)00182-4;
RA   Inoue K., Kohno T., Takakura S., Hayashi Y., Mizoguchi H., Yokota J.;
RT   "Frequent microsatellite instability and BAX mutations in T cell acute
RT   lymphoblastic leukemia cell lines.";
RL   Leuk. Res. 24:255-262(2000).
RX   PubMed=10966170; DOI=10.1034/j.1600-0609.2000.90181.x;
RA   Aggerholm A., Gronbaek K., Guldberg P., Hokland P.;
RT   "Mutational analysis of the tumour suppressor gene MMAC1/PTEN in
RT   malignant myeloid disorders.";
RL   Eur. J. Haematol. 65:109-113(2000).
RX   PubMed=11226526; DOI=10.1016/S0145-2126(00)00121-1;
RA   Inoue K., Kohno T., Takakura S., Hayashi Y., Mizoguchi H., Yokota J.;
RT   "Corrigendum to: Frequent microsatellite instability and BAX mutations
RT   in T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia cell lines Leukemia Research 24
RT   (2000),255-262.";
RL   Leuk. Res. 25:275-278(2001).
RX   PubMed=11416159; DOI=10.1073/pnas.121616198;
RA   Masters J.R.W., Thomson J.A., Daly-Burns B., Reid Y.A., Dirks W.G.,
RA   Packer P., Toji L.H., Ohno T., Tanabe H., Arlett C.F., Kelland L.R.,
RA   Harrison M., Virmani A.K., Ward T.H., Ayres K.L., Debenham P.G.;
RT   "Short tandem repeat profiling provides an international reference
RT   standard for human cell lines.";
RL   Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 98:8012-8017(2001).
RX   PubMed=11701946; DOI=10.1159/000048774;
RA   Strefford J.C., Foot N.J., Chaplin T., Neat M.J., Oliver R.T.D.,
RA   Young B.D., Jones L.K.;
RT   "The characterisation of the lymphoma cell line U937, using
RT   comparative genomic hybridisation and multi-plex FISH.";
RL   Cytogenet. Cell Genet. 94:9-14(2001).
RX   PubMed=12393283; DOI=10.1016/S0165-4608(02)00565-4;
RA   Lee J.-Y., Lee C.-H., Shim S.H., Seo H.-K., Kyhm J.-H., Cho S.,
RA   Cho Y.-H.;
RT   "Molecular cytogenetic analysis of the monoblastic cell line U937.
RT   karyotype clarification by G-banding, whole chromosome painting,
RT   microdissection and reverse painting, and comparative genomic
RT   hybridization.";
RL   Cancer Genet. Cytogenet. 137:124-132(2002).
RX   PubMed=15637111; DOI=10.1096/fj.04-3062fje;
RA   Parson W., Kirchebner R., Muhlmann R., Renner K., Kofler A.,
RA   Schmidt S., Kofler R.;
RT   "Cancer cell line identification by short tandem repeat profiling:
RT   power and limitations.";
RL   FASEB J. 19:434-436(2005).
RX   PubMed=15843827; DOI=10.1038/sj.leu.2403749;
RA   Andersson A., Eden P., Lindgren D., Nilsson J., Lassen C., Heldrup J.,
RA   Fontes M., Borg A., Mitelman F., Johansson B., Hoglund M.,
RA   Fioretos T.;
RT   "Gene expression profiling of leukemic cell lines reveals conserved
RT   molecular signatures among subtypes with specific genetic
RT   aberrations.";
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